FLINT GLASS -1808-1860 - Flint glass is a pre-civil war glassware. Flint rock was added to the glass formula to make it clearer and to increase its refraction. Flint was later replaced by lead in the glass formula. Flint glass is a finer type of glass and is less durable. The discovery of of a soda-lime formula eliminated the need for lead and became the standard for glass making. Flint glass was blown, blown and molded, as well as cut by hand or machine.
EARLY AMERICAN - 1870-1910 - The "early" refers to the early history of the glassmaking industry and not to the colonial era of America. Pattterns ranged from simple to ornate. Skilled glassworkers used molding machinery to create the glass. The advancements in glassmaking and using machinery made glass affordable to almost everyone. The ornate pressed glass of this era imitated the cut glass patterns affordable only by tthe wealthy. The early pressed glass was durable, and it had to be because it was used by families for table settings on a daily basis.
AMERICAN BRILLIANT CUT- 1876-1917 - American brilliant glass is fine quality hand-cut crystal. Its exceptional brilliance is the result of high lead content (up to 50% compared to 24% for modern crystal). It has e high refractive index. The pieces were hand crafted from the finest glass available. This glass was only affordable for the upper classes of Victorian society. The glass was heavy and had intricate cut designs.
ART GLASS - 1870s Artistic colored glass with cameo and other techniques provided Art Nouveau motifs were hand-made. and soon decorated the homes or offices.
CARNIVAL GLASS - 1905-1930 Carnival glass was made as giveaways during the stressful economic times of the depression. This iridescent pressed glass with a sheen acquired through the addition of metallic salts to the surface of the glass after the piece was molded. It regained popularity in the 1960s-1970s and many pieces were reissued.
DEPRESSION GLASS -1920-1940 American taste turned to light-weight, pastel colored glass following World War I. The pieces were molded and had simpler designs with etches. Pink, yellow, blue, green and clear glass was made during this time.
ELEGANT DEPRESSION GLASS The elegant depression glass was at least partially hand made. Companies such as Fostoria, Duncan Miller, Cambridge, and Heisey are among the most well known.